Amphetamine is a powerful stimulating drug that has many side effects. There are pharmaceutical and street forms of this drug. The pharmaceutical formulations help in the treatment of many conditions like narcolepsy and chronic syndrome, while the street forms contain impurities that can cause serious side effects. They have a high potential for abuse, physical and mental addiction. There are several routes of amphetamine administration. Some include;
The oral method is the easiest option of administration and does not require much preparation. In this method, amphetamine needs to be in powder form. It can be put in capsules or mixed with a liquid. Many users modify it so as to get the full dose at once. This is done by opening the capsule and crushing the contents with a mortar and pestle. However, many other tools can be improvised, like a hammer and a simple plastic bag. It is then ingested by putting it back in the capsule. This produces immediate effects and leads to the whole dose being absorbed at once.
The oral administration is relatively the safest method. This is because most of the impurities are dealt with in the first pass effect. However, some impurities may still remain causing ill effects.
This is the second most common method of administration and requires that it be in the form of a fine powder. This method involves inhaling amphetamine through the nose where it is absorbed rapidly through the mucous membrane. Research evidence and reports from users show that snorting increases bioavailability of the drug, resulting in a very intense effect. When snorted, the effects of amphetamine will show within minutes but will have a shorter duration of effect.
However, everyone should be warned that improper techniques and improper preparation of the drug will result to ill health. Street forms of amphetamine contain many impurities that can have different negative effects, ranging from nasal membrane damage to significant irritation.
This method is very dangerous because of the intense and immediate rush it gives its users. This method causes amphetamine to circulate rapidly through the bloodstream. When injected, the effects of appear almost immediately but are short lived.
Even if injection of amphetamine is one of the most effective method of administration, it is also the most dangerous and complicated method and is not recommended. It also increases the riskiness of infection of other diseases like HIV since it is injected using a syringe.
There are many side effects that develop when one uses this drug.Psychological effect
The abuse of amphetamine can result to many psychotic disorders. The most common effects include anxiety, euphoria, increased libido, higher self esteem, sociability, increased self confidence, and several other psychosomatics disorders. This drug can also cause obsessive and repetitive behaviors and paranoia when taken in high doses.
In a study carried out in Australia, 309 men who were active amphetamine users were tested. It was discovered that approximately 19% of them had experienced a severe level psychosis in the previous year. Another similar study done in Japan showed a 65% of users recovered within 11 days. However, reports show that almost 5% to 20% of users don't make full recovery of psychosis in the long term.
Amphetamine withdrawal symptoms range from mental depression, mental fatigue to increased appetite. If used occasionally, these symptoms can be dominant for several days. However, if used for weeks or even months, they become worse. The severity of the effects depends on the amount and length of time used. Other withdrawal symptoms include agitation, anxiety, excessive sleep, lucid and vivid dreams and suicidal idealities.
Other side effects include weight loss and dangerous heartbeat levels. In addition, amphetamine is very dangerous for patients with a history of hypertension and heart attack. This is because it increases blood pressure and cardiac output. Amphetamine is also bad for pregnant women since it can pass into breast milk and harm your child.
Published literature evidence shows that amphetamine occasionally produces typical or opposite effects in some rare cases. Several users have reported having different experiences and effects of this drug. The scientific reasons for these rare cases have not yet been discovered and remain poorly understood. Some have reported lowered electrical brain activity, drowsiness among others. All in all, it is best to stay away from this drug so as to maintain a healthy life.